A List of Genetics Terminology Everyone Should Know

Genetics are the basis of who we are. They are the building blocks that make us. Some schools lack funding, so children are not acquainted with genetics. While others just never had the opportunity to learn about what makes them the person they are today. These are the fundamentals of genetics, of which everyone should be aware.

1. DNA 

DNA or deoxyribonucleic acid is inside of your body and literally makes you the person you are. It carries all of your family’s history and decides on everything from your big feet to your blue eyes. DNA is the essence of you.

2. Chromosomes 

Chromosomes are a set of rod-shaped carriers that contain and carry genes that are made by your DNA. You get two sets of Chromosomes; on from each parent the 23rd chromosomal pair decides your gender.

3. Gene 

A Gene is something you have inside you that dictates an outcome for your life such as a predisposition to Cancer, Multiple Sclerosis or even premature balding.

4. Mitosis 

Mitosis is literally the splitting and reproduction of cells that happens when a life is growing and the end result is a baby. The cells split then multiply over and over.

5. Mutation 

This is an irreversible change to a gene that causes a double up of sorts. An example of this is there is an extra piece on the 21st Chromosome, and that is what causes Downs Syndrome.

6. Carriers 

Those who possess a gene or illness but are not affected by it. Instead the pass it along to their children or future grandchildren.

7. Gene Pool 

The collective genes of the entire population of the world.

8. Amino Acid

Amino acids are the building blocks of protein and are compounds that play many critical roles in your body.

9. Double Helix

A spiral-ladder shaped molecule – structure of DNA.

10. Trait


Traits are a feature which appearance is determined by genes.

13. Allele

One of the alternative forms of a gene that governs a characteristic, such as eye color. Each characteristic has two alleles.

14. Genetic Code

Genetic code is the genetic information that is held in the DNA.


  1. Zygote


A zygote is a fertilized egg.


  1. Biodiversity


The variation in species in an ecosystem

This list of genetic terms is not extensive, but these terms should provide you with a starting point when understanding the world of Genetics. We as humans share the same building blocks as all other life on earth.

Evan Shaner